PENERJEMAH, PENERJEMAHAN, TERJEMAHAN, DAN DINAMIKA BUDAYA: MENATAP PERAN PENERJEMAHAN PADA MASA LALU DI NUSANTARA

Benny H. Hoed

Abstract

This paper describes the role and impact of translation on cultural change.
Translation is defned as an effort to divert messages from one language
(source language) into another language (target language). Language, through
translation and transfer of messages, can affect the formation of the target
culture as stated in the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Many studies on translation
are generally talking about the quality of translation. This paper however does
not discuss about quality of the translation instead it focuses on the role of
translation and its impact on target communities. Specifcally, it talks about
the subject of the translation and the translation in the beginning of Hinduism
and Islamic period and the New Order period in Indonesia.
The paper observes the translation from the perspective of its purpose,
which is known as skopos method. It reviews four articles contained in the
book ofSadur. The paper also shows how the translation may have an impact
on cultural change, i.e. how the translators introduce, distribute, or take
advantage of cultural elements contained in the source text while adjusting
to the needs of target communities. The main purpose of those translations
studied is to spread the religion, literature, and social rules. There are three
things observed through translation: (i) the role of the source language as the
language of religion, administration, and literature is taken over by the target
language. (ii) the genre of the source language is replaced with the genre of
the target language. (iii) teaching of Hinduism and Islam were inserted into
local religious teachings; literary sources adapted to local literature. The paper
concludes that the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis applies where the translation
shapes culture. And translation, based on the principle of sadur (adaptation)
and pemribumian (domestication), has formed a new fgure of local
culture in the history of Indonesia.
Keywords: cultural change, translation

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