HARMONI DAN KETAHANAN KULTURAL DALAM TRADISI LISAN TYARKA DI KEPULAUAN BABAR, MALUKU BARAT DAYA

Mariana Lewier

Abstract

This paper had been carried out to expose the cultural survivorship of oral tradition tyarka in Babar Archipelago, South West Mollucas as a cultural heritage based on its language aspect and performance,
defense, and inheritance. The endurance or cultural survivorship of the linguistic aspect is expressed through the creativity of the production of poetic expression, while the performance aspect is examined based on the situation of the performance and audience participation. The defense and inheritance of the tyarka is revealed in connection with Babar’s collective memory. This paper is the result of a qualitative research using an etnography method. The data were focused on the tyarka performance in Eastern Babar and Masela Island without neglecting the others in Babar Archipelago. By analizing the oral and poetic expression, it was found that the structure and composition of tyarka have repeating patterns in the old language plurality in Babar Archipelago. The plurality of old languages used and understood by the indigenous people of Southwest Maluku shows a mutually acceptable harmony of life.
1 Tulisan ini merupakan ringkasan disertasi yang berjudul “Kesintasan Tradisi Lisan Tyarka di Kepulauan Babar, Maluku Barat
Daya (2016). The structure of tyarka describes “tree and edge”
philosophy which is its survival methaphore. As a ritual performances that are believed to be sacred, the oral tradition of tyarka have been developing significant after the formation of
Southwest Maluku Regency. The endeavour to defend and inherit tyarka showed the concern and appreciation of the community toward their ancesor and its regeneration. This became a cultural force of the Babar community as an archipelago society that maintained unity and involvement.


Keywords: harmony and cultural survivorship, oral tradition, Tyarka, inheritance


ABSTRAK

Tulisan ini mengungkapkan harmoni dan ketahanan kultural tradisi lisan tyarka di Kepulauan Babar Maluku Barat Daya sebagai suatu warisan budaya yang dilihat dari aspek kebahasaan dan pertunjukan, serta pemertahanan dan pewarisannya. Ketahanan atau kesintasan kultural dari aspek kebahasaan diperlihatkan melalui kreativitas produksi ekspresi puitik, sedangkan aspek pertunjukan dikaji berdasarkan situasi pertunjukan dan partisipasi penonton. Pemertahanan dan pewarisan tyarka diungkap dalam kaitan dengan memori kolektif masyarakat Babar. Tulisan ini merupakan hasil penelitian bertipe kualitatif dengan menggunakan metode etnografi. Data penelitian difokuskan pada pertunjukan tyarka dari Babar Timur dan Pulau Masela dengan tetap memperhatikan data tyarka dari pulau lainnya di Kepulauan Babar.
Temuan yang diperoleh dari analisis kelisanan dan ekspresi puitika menunjukkan struktur dan komposisi tyarka yang memiliki pola perulangan baku dalam pluralitas bahasa tua di Kepulauan Babar. Pluralitas bahasa tua yang digunakan dan dapat dipahami oleh masyarakat adat Maluku Barat Daya menunjukkan harmoni kehidupan yang saling berterima. Struktur tyarka menggambarkan falsafah “pohon dan ujung” yang merupakan metofora kesintasannya. Sebagai sebuah pertunjukan ritual yang diyakini kesakralannya, tradisi lisan tyarka mengalami perkembangan yang cukup signifikan setelah terbentuknya Kabupaten Maluku Barat Daya. Upaya untuk mempertahankan dan mewariskan tyarka menunjukkan sikap kepedulian yang didasari penghargaan dan penghormatan terhadap tradisi leluhur dalam kesinambungan antargenerasi. Hal ini menjadi suatu kekuatan kultural masyarakat Babar sebagai masyarakat kepulauan yang tetap menjaga kesatuan dan keterikatan secara adat.

Kata Kunci: harmoni dan ketahanan kultural, tradisi lisan, Tyarka, pewarisan

Keywords

harmony and cultural survivorship, oral tradition, Tyarka, inheritance

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