CHINESE INDONESIANS AND CHINA-INDONESIA RELATIONS: A JUXTAPOSITION OF IDENTITY AND POLITICS

Thung Ju Lan

Abstract

In this paper, I would like to discuss various possibilities of Chinese Indonesian positions within the socio-political and cultural framework of Indonesian nationalism and contemporary globalism. As history has shown, the position of Chinese Indonesians is often determined by the interaction between China and Indonesia in the global context, and vice versa. The impact of 1965 tragic event -which is known as the Indonesian Communist Party’s failed coup d'etat- on Chinese Indonesians is the clearest example of such a loose position. Today we face the growing power of China globally which is followed by the strengthened bilateral relations between China and Indonesia in various fields. China’s “new diplomacy” has changed the way its neighbors view Beijing and Chinese diaspora communities which are previously known as “overseas Chinese”. As part of a diasporic community, Chinese Indonesians might have to deal with what Nira Yuval Davies calls “multiscalar citizenship of transnational, national and local”, signifying a critical juncture between homeland, citizenship and residency. 

Keywords: Chinese Indonesians, China-Indonesia Relations, identity and politics


ABSTRAK

Tulisan ini membahas berbagai kemungkinan posisi etnik Tionghoa dalam kerangka sosial-politik dan kultural nasionalisme Indonesia dan globalisme kontemporer. Sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh sejarah, posisi etnik Tionghoa di Indonesia seringkali ditentukan oleh interaksi antara Tiongkok dan Indonesia dalam konteks global. Dampak dari peristiwa tragis 1965, yang dikenal sebagai kudeta yang gagal dari Partai Komunis Indonesia, terhadap etnik Tionghoa merupakan contoh yang paling jelas dari posisi mereka yang tidak pasti tersebut. Hari ini kita menghadapi meningkatnya pengaruh Tiongkok secara global yang diikuti dengan menguatnya hubungan bilateral antara Tiongkok dan Indonesia di berbagai bidang. ‘Diplomasi baru’ Tiongkok telah mengubah cara negara-negara tetangganya memandang Beijing (Peking) dan komunitas-komunitas diaspora Cina yang sebelumnya dikenal sebagai ‘orang Cina yang tinggal di luar negeri’. Sebagai bagian dari komunitas diaspora, etnik Tionghoa di Indonesia harus berurusan dengan apa yang disebut Nira Yuval Davis sebagai “kewarganegaraan berbagai skala: transnasional, nasional, dan lokal”, yang menandakan suatu titik temu yang kritis antara tanah air, kewarganegaraan, dan tempat tinggal.


Kata Kunci: Etnis Tionghoa, Hubungan Tiongkok-Indonesia, Identitas dan Politik.

Keywords

Chinese Indonesians; China-Indonesia relations; identity; politics

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