TANTANGAN KEBERLANJUTAN PEKEBUN KELAPA SAWIT RAKYAT DI KABUPATEN PELALAWAN, RIAU DALAM PERUBAHAN PERDAGANGAN GLOBAL

Sakti Hutabarat

Abstract

Oil palm smallholders are potential actors to be included in the global palm oil market. Smallholder plantations account for 41.4% of total oil palm plantation areas and represents 36.6% of total CPO produced in Indonesia in 2015. The number of farmers involves in oil palm plantation encompass 2.3 million farmers which have been  an important driver for economic growth in rural areas. However, oil palm smallholders are vulnerable from issues related to unsustainable production including environmental, social and legal issues which might lower access and exclude smallholder access to global market. The objective of this study is to analyze position and capacity of oil palm smallholders in facing global change in international market. Population of this study is oil palm smallholder farmers in Ukui Subdistrict, Pelalawan District, Riau Province which consist of RSPO-certified independent smallholders, Non-certified independent smallholders, and RSPO-certified scheme smallholders. The sample size were 220 farmers and chosen randomly from each group (80, 60 and 80 farmers for each group respectively). The study found that majority of the farmers still apply traditional practices in their plantations and far below the standard of good agricultural practices and certification standards. The challenges faced by the Amanah Association to obtain RSPO certificate is not easy to follow by other smallholders. Therefore, external supports from government and private actors are needed to improve farmers’ capacity to meet and comply with certification and to include small-scale farmers in the palm oil global supply chain.


Keywords: Independent smallholders, scheme smallholders, oil palm, certification, global market

 

ABSTRAK

Pekebun kelapa sawit merupakan aktor yang berpotensi menjadi bagian penting dari perdagangan minyak sawit global. Luas perkebunan kelapa sawit rakyat mencapai 41,4% dari seluruh area perkebunan sawit Indonesia dengan produksi 36,6% dari total produksi minyak sawit Indonesia pada 2015. Jumlah pekebun kelapa sawit rakyat mencapai 2,3 juta; ini merupakan jumlah yang cukup signifikan sebagai penggerak perekonomian di pedesaan. Namun, pekebun kelapa sawit rakyat sangat rentan terhadap berbagai isu (lingkungan, sosial, dan legalitas) yang dapat menghambat akses pasar di rantai suplai internasional. Studi ini bertujuan menganalisis posisi dan kapasitas pekebun kelapa sawit rakyat dalam menghadapi perubahan global perdagangan internasional. Populasi penelitian ini adalah pekebun kelapa sawit rakyat di Kecamatan Ukui, Kabupaten Pelalawan, Provinsi Riau, yaitu pekebun kelapa sawit swadaya bersertifikat RSPO, pekebun kelapa sawit swadaya non-RSPO, dan pekebun kelapa sawit plasma bersertifikat RSPO. Jumlah sampel ditentukan sebesar 220 pekebun dan dipilih secara acak untuk setiap grup (80, 80, dan 80 pekebun). Studi ini memperlihatkan sebagian besar pekebun masih menjalankan bisnis kelapa sawit secara tradisional. Praktik pertanian yang dilakukan masih jauh dari praktik pertanian yang terbaik (good agricultural practices) ataupun dari standar sertifikasi yang ada. Perjuangan pekebun kelapa sawit swadaya Amanah di Kecamatan Ukui untuk memperoleh sertifikasi RSPO memperlihatkan bahwa tantangan tak mudah dicapai pekebun swadaya lain. Campur tangan pemerintah dan aktor lain sangat dibutuhkan pekebun kelapa sawit swadaya untuk dapat disertifikasi dan menjadi bagian dari rantai suplai kelapa sawit internasional.

Kata kunci: Pekebun kelapa sawit rakyat, pekebun swadaya, pekebun plasma, kelapa sawit, sertifikasi, perdagangan
global

 

Full Text:

PDF

References

Angelsen, A. (1995). Shifting cultivation and “deforestation”: A study from Indonesia. World Development, 23(10), 1713–1729.

Anggraini, E., & Grundmann, P. (2013). Transactions in the supply chain of oil palm fruits and their relevance for land conversion in smallholdings in Indonesia. The Journal of Environment & Development, 22(4), 391–410. doi: 10.1177/1070496513506225.

Ansari, F., Bhartata, A., Hudata, A., Kurniawan, P. M., & Rianda, E. (2007). Indonesian tropical deforestation. APRIL and APP case studies. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Arnould, E. J., Plastina, A., & Ball, D. (2009). Does fair trade deliver on its core value proposition? Effects on income, educational attainment and

health in three countries. Marketing Department Faculty Publications. Paper 12. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Available at: http:// digitalcommons. unl.edu/marketingfacpub/12. Retrieved 20 October 2012.

Asfaw, S. (2011). The Impact of food safety standards on rural household welfare. Dalam D. Mithofer & H. Walbel (Eds.), Vegetable Production and Marketing in Africa. Oxfordshire: CABI International.

Austin, K., Kasibhatla, P. S., Urban, D. L., Stolle, F., & Vincent, J. (2015). Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. PLoS One, 10(5). doi: 10.1371/journal. pone. 0127963.

Bacon, C. M., Méndez, V. E., Gómez, M. E. F.,Stuart, D., & Flores, S. R. D. (2008). Are sustainable coffee certifications enough to secure farmers livelihoods? The millenium development goals and Nicaragua’s fair trade cooperatives. Globalizations, 5(2): 259-274. doi: 10.1080/ 14747730802057688

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2014). Direktori perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Badrun, M. (2010a). Lintasan 30 tahun pengembangan kelapa sawit. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia dan Gapki.

Badrun, M. (2010b). Tonggak perubahan: Melalui PIR kelapa sawit membangun negeri. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia.

Barham, B. L., Callenes, M., Gitter, S., Lewis, J., & Weber, J. (2011). Fair trade /organic coffee, rural livelihoods, and the “agrarian question”: Southern mexican coffee families in transition. World Development, 39(1), 134–145.

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2015). Statistik Indonesia (Statistical year book of Indonesia) 2015. Jakarta: BPS-Statistics Indonesia.

Buana, L., Kurniawan, A., & Siahaan, D. (2004). Profil industri kelapa sawit Indonesia. Dalam A. Kurniawan (Ed.), Tinjauan Ekonomi Industri Kelapa Sawit. Medan: Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit.

Budidarsono, S., Susanti, A., & Zoomers, A. (2013). Oil palm plantations in Indonesia: the implications for migration, settlement/resettlement, and local economic development. Dalam Z. Fang (Ed.), Biofuel-Economy, Environment, and Sustainability. In Tech, Rijeka, pp. 173–192.

Budiharsono, S., Rahmanulloh, A., & Sofiyuddin, M. (2012). Economic assessment of palm oil production. Technical Brief No. 26. Palm Oil Series. Bogor: World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF, SEA Regional Office.

Carlson, K., Curran, L., Ratnasari, D., Pittman, A., Soares, B. S., Asner, G. P., Trigg, S., et al. (2012). Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 109(19): 7559-7564. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1200452109

Carlson, K. M., Curran, L. M., Asner, G. P., Pittman, A. M., Trigg, S. N., & Adeney, J. (2013). Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations. Nat. Clim. Chang., 3(3), 283-287. doi: 10.1038 /nclimate1702

Casson, A. (2000). The hesitant boom: Indonesia’s oil palm sub-sector in an era of economic crisis and political change. Occasional paper, Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

Chambers, R. G. (1988). Applied production analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Colchester, M. (2006). Lahan yang dijanjikan: Minyak sawit dan pembebasan tanah di Indonesia-implikasi terhadap masyarakat lokal dan masyarakat adat. Jakarta: Forest People Programme, Perkumpulan Sawit Watch, Huma and the World Agroforestry Centre.

Colchester, M. (2010). Palm oil and indigenous peoples in South East Asia. Retrieved from www.forestpeoples.org website. Date accessed 12 September 2012.

Colman, D., & Young, T. (1989). Principles of Agricultural Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press.

Corley, R. H. V., & Tinker, P. B. H. (2003). The oil palm. New Jersey: Blackwell.

Darmawan, D. H. A. (2015). Update of Palm Oil Industry in Indonesia. Presentation on ISPO Promotion, 12 October 2015. Indonesian Palm Oil Board (IPOB), The Hague, Netherlands.

Darmawan, D. H. A. (2015, 12 Oktober). Update of palm oil industry in Indonesia.

Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia. (1983). Keputusan Menteri Pertanian No. 182 Tahun 1983 tentang Pembentukan Tim Khusus Proyek Perkebunan (NES projects dan Loan PMU). Jakarta.

Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia. (1985). Keputusan Menteri Pertanian No. 668 Tahun 1985 tentang Ketentuan Umum Pelaksanaan Proyek Perkebunan Pola PIR. Jakarta.

Dewi, S., Belcher, B., & Puntodewo, A. (2005). Village economic opportunity, forest dependence, and rural livelihoods in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. [Livelihoods, forests, and conservation]. World Development, 33(9), 1419–1434. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.worlddev.2004.10.006.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. (2014). Statistik perkebunan Indonesia 2013–2015: Kelapa Sawit. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian RI.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. (2014). Kelapa sawit. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia Tahun 2013-2014. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia.

Edwards, F. A., Edwards, D. P., Larsen, T. H., Hsu, W. W., Benedick, S., Chung, A., Khen, C. V., et al. (2014). Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot? Anim. Conserv., 17(2), 163–173. doi: 10.1111/acv.12074.

European Parliament. (2017). Report on palm oil and deforestation of rainforests. Brussels: Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety.

Ewing, M., & Msangi, S. (2009). Biofuels production in developing countries: assessing tradeoffs in welfare and food security. [Special Issue: Food Security and Environmental Change Food Security and Environmental Change: Linking Science, Development and Policy for Adaptation]. Environmental Science & Policy, 12(4), 520–528.

Fairhurst, T., & McLaughlin, D. (2009). Sustainable oil palm development on degraded land in Kalimantan. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC USA. Available at: http://www.worldwildlife. org/what/globalmarkets/ agriculture/ WWFBinaryitem16231. pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2012.

Fauzi, Y. (2012). Kelapa sawit, budidaya pemanfaatan hasil dan limbah analisis usaha dan pemasaran. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

Ferrigno, S., & Monday, P. (2013). The economic impact of sustainability standards in the cotton sector in Africa report. Study commissioned by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit), on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through its Trade Policy and Trade Promotion Fund. Available at: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/293827822_ The_economic_impact_of_ sustainability_standards_in_the_cotton_sector_in_Africa. Retrieved 18 October 2015.

Fitzherbert, E. B., Struebig, M. J., Morel, A., Danielsen, F., Bruhl, C. A., Donald, P. F., & Phalan, B. (2008). How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends Ecol. Evol., 23(10), 538–545.

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). (2010b). FAOSTAT. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.

Fortin, J. C. (2011). The biofuel boom and Indonesia’s oil palm industry: The twin processes of peasant dispossession and adverse incorporation in west Kalimantan. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Master of Art. Saint Mary’s University.

Foster, W., Snaddon, J., Turner, E. C., Fayle, T. M., Cockerill, T., Ellwood, M., Broad, G., et al. (2011). Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci., 366(1582), 3277–3291. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0041.

Gerritsma, W., & Wessel, M. (1997). Oil palm: Domestication achieved? Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 45(4), 463–475.

González, A. A., & Nigh, R. (2005). Smallholder participation and Certification of organic farm products in Mexico. [Certifying Rural Spaces: Quality-Certified Products and Rural Governance]. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(4), 449–460.

Graffham, A., dkk. (2007). Impact of EurepGAP on smallscale vegetable growers in Kenya. Fresh Insights Number 6. London: IIED.

Hartley, C. W. S. (1988). The oil palm. (3rd ed.). Longman, London: Blackwell.

Haugen, H. M. (2009). Energy security vs. food security-comparing Brazil, Indonesia, and Tanzania. 3/126. Retfaerd Argang, 32, 3–23.

Henderson, J. M., & Quandt, R. E. (1980). Microeconomic theory: A mathematical approach. (Third edition ed.). Auckland: McGraw-Hill International Book Company.

Hidayat, N. K., Glasbergen, P., & Offemans, A. (2015). Sustainability certification and palm oil smallholders’ livelihood: A comparison between scheme smallholders and independent smallholders in Indonesia. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 18(3), 25–48.

Hutabarat, S., Slingerland, M., & Dries, L. (2017). The prospects and challenges of certification for different types of oil palm smallholders. Inpress.

Hutabarat, S., Slingerland, M., Rietberg, P., & Dries, L. (2017). Costs and benefits of RSPO certification of independent smallholders. Inpress.

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Republik Indonesia. (2010). Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup No. 13 Tahun 2010 tentang UKL, UPL, dan SPPL. Jakarta: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup.

Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia. (2005). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 395 Tahun 2005 tentang Pedoman Penetapan Harga Pembelian Tandan Buah Segar (TBS) Kelapa Sawit Produksi Pekebun. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian.

_____. (2006). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 33 Tahun 2006 tentang Pembangunan Perkebunan Melalui Program Revitalisasi Perkebunan. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian.

_____. (2007). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 19 Tahun 2011 tentang Pedoman Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia (ISPO). Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian.

_____. (2011). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 19 Tahun 2011 tentang Pedoman Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia (Indonesian

Sustainable Palm Oil/ISPO). Jakarta. Diakses dari http://ditjenbun deptan.go.id/ Pascapanen/download.php?file=lampispo.pdf.

_____. (2013). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 14 Tahun 2013 tentang Pedoman Penetapan Harga Pembelian TBSW Kelapa Sawit Produksi Pekebun. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian.

Koczberski, G., Curry, G., & Anjen, J. (2012). Changing land tenure and informal land markets in the oil palm frontier regions of Papua New Guinea: the challenge for land reform. Australian Geographer, 43(2), 181–196. doi: 10.1080/00049182.2012.682295.

Koh, L. P., & Ghazoul, J. (2008). Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: understanding the conflicts and finding opportunities. Biological Conservation, 141, 2450–2460.

Kohne, M. (2014). Multi-stakeholder initiative governance as assemblage: Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil as a political resource in land conflicts related to oil palm plantations. Agric. Human Values, 31(3), 469–480. doi: 10.1007/s10460-014-9507-5.

Kuit, M., & Waarts, Y. (2014). Small-scale farmers, certification schemes, and private standards: Is there a business? Costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors. Wageningen: Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA). Available at: http://publications. cta.int. Retrieved 12 May 2015.

Lee, J. S. H. (2013). Oil palm expansion in Indonesia-Assessing livelihood and environmental impacts from the smallholder sector. Ph.D. Thesis. ETH Zürich University, Switzerland. Accessed: 18 September 2015.

Lee, J. S. H., Rist, L., Obidzinski, K., Ghazoul, J., & Koh, L. P. (2011). No farmer left behind in sustainable biofuel production. Biological Conservation, 144(10), 2512–2516.

Lima, A., Silva, T. S. F., Aragão, L. E. O. e. C. d., Feitas, R. M. d., Adami, M., Formaggio, A. R., & Shimabukuro, Y. E. (2012). Land use and land cover changes determine the spatial relationship between fire and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Applied Geography, 34(2012), 239–246.

Manggabarani, A. (2009a). Memaknai sebuah anugerah: Sumbangsih kelapa sawit Indonesia bagi dunia. Jakarta: Ideals Agro Akbar.

Manggabarani, A. (2009b). Palm oil: A golden gift from Indonesia to the world. Jakarta: Directorate General of Estate Crops in Collaboration with Sinar Mas.

Markne, M. (2015). Certifying sustainability independent oil palm smallholders’ experiences of the RSPO certification process in the Riau Province, Indonesia. (MSc Thesis). Uppsala University, Swedia.

Marti, S. (2008). Losing ground: The human rights impacts of oil palm plantation expansion in Indonesia. Friends of the Earth, London, UK; LifeMosaic, Edinburgh, UK; and Sawit Watch, Bogor, Indonesia.

Maulud, A. L., & Saidi, H. (2012). The Malaysian fifth fuel policy: Re-strategising the Malaysian renewable energy initiatives. [Special Section: Frontiers of Sustainability]. Energy Policy, 48(0), 88–92. doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j. enpol.2012.06.023.

Mausch, K., & Mithöfer, D. (2011). The impact of compliance with GlobalGap standards on small and large Kenyan export vegetable-producing farms. Dalam D. Mithöfer & H. Waibel (Eds.), Vegetable Production and Marketing in Africa-Socio Economic Research. CABI International, Oxfordshire, UK. Diakses pada 12 September 2013 dari http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/FullTextPDF/2011/20113221528.pdf.

May-Tobin, C., Boucher, D., Decker, E., Hurowitz, G., Martin, J., Mulik, K., Roquemore, S., et al. (2012). Recipes for success. Solutions for Deforestation-Free Vegetable Oils. Massachusetts: Union of Concerned Scientists.

McCarthy, J. F., & Cramb, R. A. (2009). Policy narratives, landholder engagement, and oil palm expansion on the Malaysian and Indonesian frontiers. Geographical Journal, 175, 112–123. doi: DOI 10.1111/ j.1475- 4959.2009.00322.x.

Molenaar, J. W., Orth, M., Lord, S., Meekers, P., Taylor, C., Hanu, M. D. A., Elson, D., et al. (2010). Analysis of the agronomic and institutional constraints to smallholder yield improvement in Indonesia. Amsterdam: Aidenvironment.

Molenaar, J. W., Persch-Orth, M., Lord, S., Taylor, C., & Harms, J. (2013). Diagnostic study on Indonesia oil palm smallholders: Developing a better understanding of their performance and potential. Jakarta: International Finance Corporation. Diakses pada 18 February 2015 dari http:// www.rspo.org/file/ Diagnostic_Study_on_Indonesian_ Palm_Oil_ Smallholders.pdf.

Moreno Echeverri, I. (2011). Certified cocoa production in Nyinahini, Ashanti region, Ghana. Farm characterization, farmers’ perceptions and scenario assessment. MSc Thesis. Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Nantha, H., & Tisdell, C. (2009). The orangutan-oil palm conflict: economic constraints and opportunities for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv., 18(2), 487–502. doi: 10.1007/s10531-008-9512-3.

Narno. (2017). Asosiasi petani sawit swadaya amanah. Makalah dipresentasikan pada the Seminar Satu Hari Lebih Dekat dengan RSPO, 17 Januari 2017. RSPO, Pekanbaru.

Nazir, M. (2014). Metode penelitian. Bogor: Penerbit Ghalia Indonesia.

Nediasari, D. (2017). Konsumen Indonesia & industri kelapa sawit. Makalah dipresentasikan pada RSPO General Lecture UNRI, 18 Agustus 2017. RSPO, Pekanbaru.

Nelson, V., Opoku, K., Martin, A., J., B., & Posthumus, H. (2013). Assessing the poverty impact of sustainability standards: fairtrade in Ghanaian cocoa. Kent: NRI.

Nelson, V., & Smith, S. (2011). Fairtrade cotton: Assessing impact in Mali, Senegal, Cameroon and India (Report). Kent: NRI and IDS.

Nesadurai, H. (2013). Food security, the palm oil-land conflict nexus, and sustainability: a governance role for a private multi-stakeholder regime like the RSPO? Pac. Rev., 26(5), 505–529. doi: 10.1080/ 09512748.2013.842311.

Pahan, I. (2012). Panduan lengkap kelapa sawit: Manajemen agribisnis dari hulu hingga hilir (A complete guide on oil palm: Agribusiness management from upstream to downstream). Jakarta: Penerbit Swadaya.

Pamin, K. (1998). A hundred and fifty years of oil palm development in Indonesia: from Bogor Botanical Garden to the Industry. Makalah dipresentasikan pada 1998 International Oil Palm Conference ‘Commodity of the past, today and the future’, Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute, Medan, Indonesia.

Ponte, C. (2015). Borrowing from local institutions in the configuration of a private certification scheme. The case of the Amanah Association for independent oil palm smallholder farmers (MSc Thesis). Wageningen University.

Presiden Republik Indonesia. (1960). Undang-Undang No. 5 Tahun 1960 tentang Peraturan Dasar Pokok-pokok Agraria (UUPA). Sekretariat Negara RI, Jakarta.

Presiden Republik Indonesia. (2014). Undang-undang No. 39 Tahun 2014 tentang Perkebunan. Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.

Priadjati, A. (2002). Dipterocarpaceae: Forest fires and forest recovery. Proefschrift Wageningen Met lit. opg. - Met samenvatting in het Engels,

Nederlands en Indonesisch. Tropenbos International, Wageningen. Diakses 14 November 2012 dari http://edepot.wur.nl/121355.

ProForest. (2003). Defining sustainability in oil palm production: An analysis of existing sustainable agriculture and oil palm Initiatives. Makalah dipresentasikan pada Roundtable on Sustainable Oil Palm, 25 Juli 2003. Proforest, 1–48.

Rahadian, D. (2013). Delivering the independent palm oil smallholder into sustainable: The first RSPO certified for Indonesia independent palm oil smallholders. WWF, Jakarta.

Rist, L., Feintrenie, L., & Levang, P. (2010). The livelihood impacts of oil palm: Smallholders in Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv., 19(4), 1009–1024. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9815-z.

Rowell, A., & Moore, P. F. (2000). Global review of forest fires. Gland: WWF International & The World Conservation Union (IUCN). RSPO. (2009). Prinsip & kriteria RSPO untuk produksi minyak sawit berkelanjutan: Pedoman petani plasma. 2 Juli 2009. Gugus Kerja Petani, RSPO.

RSPO. (2010). Prinsip & kriteria RSPO untuk produksi minyak sawit berkelanjutan: Pedoman petani independen. 19 Juni 2010. Task Force untuk Petani, RSPO.

RSPO. (2012). Buku panduan penerapan prinsip dan kriteria RSPO untuk petani kelapa sawit. Jakarta: RSPO Indonesia Liaison Office (RILO).

Rumondang, T. (2017). Transforming the market to make sustainable palm oil the norm. Paper presented at the RSPO General Lecture UNRI, 18 Januari 2017. Pekanbaru: RSPO.

Saharjo, B. H., Wasis, B., & Mulyana, D. (2011). Canal blocking of burnt peat swamp forest and it’s future. Makalah dipresentasikan pada 5th International Wildland Fire Conference, Wildfire, South Africa. http:// www.infopuntveiligheid.nl/Infopuntdocumenten/Dossier%20

Natuurbranden/Wildfire%20Conference%20 Zuid-Afrika%202011/62%20 Bambang%20 Hero%20Saharjo.pdf.

Simorangkir, D. (2007). Fire use: Is it really the cheaper land preparation method for largescale plantations? Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12(1), 147–164.

Smith, P. D., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., et al. (2007). Agriculture. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 497–540. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Susanti, A., & Burgers, P. (2012). Oil palm expansion: Competing claim of lands for food, biofuels, and conservation. Dalam M. Behnassi, O. Pollmann & G. Kissinger (Eds.), Sustainable Food Security in the Era of Local and Global Environmental Change, 301–320. Dordrecht: Springer, In press.

Susanti, A., & Burgers, P. (2013). Oil palm expansion: competing claim of lands for food, biofuels, and conservation. Dalam M. Behnassi, O. Pollmann & G. Kissinger (Eds.), Sustainable Food Security in the Era of Local and Global Environmental Change. Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 301–320.

Suyanto, S. (2007). Underlying cause of fire: different form of land tenure conflicts in Sumatra. Mitig Adapt Strat GLob Change, 12, 67–74.

Swarna Nantha, H., & Tisdell, C. (2009). The orangutan-oil palm conflict: economic constraints and opportunities for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(2), 487–502. doi: 10.1007/ s10531-008-9512-3.

Tauli-Corpuz, V., & Tamang, P. (2007). Oil palm and other commercial tree plantations, monocropping: Impacts on indigenous people’s land tenure and resource management systems and livelihoods. UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Working Paper, E/C.19/2007/CRP.6, para.33 (hereinafter “UNPFII Working Paper”). Diakses 22 November 2012 dari http://www.un. org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/session_sixth.html.

Teoh, C. H. (2012). Key sustainability issues in the palm oil sector. A Discussion Paper for Multi-Stakeholders Consultations (Commissioned by the World Bank Group). International Finance Corporation, The World Bank., Washington DC.

UNDP. (2012). Indonesia sustainable palm oil initiative. United Nations Development Program, Green Commodities Facility.

Vermeulen, S., & Goad, N. (2006). Towards better practice in smallholder palm oil production. Natural Resources Issues Series 5. London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Vermeulen, S., dkk. (2008). Chain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development: a guide to multi-stakeholder processes for linking small-scale producers with modern makets. Wageningen: International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, and Wageningen University and Research Centre.

von Uexkull, H. R., & Mutert, E. W. (1994). Rehabilitation and lasting improvement of degraded land in Indonesia. Makalah dipresentasikan pada Giessener Beitrge zur Entwicklungsforschung Reihe1 (Symposien) Band 21, Wissenschaftliches Zentrum Tropeninstitute Giessen, 47–65.

World Bank, & IFC. (2011a). The World Bank Group and IFC strategy for enggagement in the palm oil sector. Washington: World Bank & IFC.

World Bank & IFC. (2011b). The World Bank Group Framework and IFC strategy for engagement in the palm oil sector: Draft for consultations. Washington: IFC and The World Bank. Diakses dari http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/ agriconsultation.nsf/Attachments-ByTitle/Jan6_ Draft+Framework/$FILE/WBG+Framework+and+IFC+Strategy_draft+for+consultations.pdf.

World Growth. (2010). Palm oil and food security: The impediment of land supply. World Growth. Diakses 18 June 2012 dari http://www..worldgrowth. org/assets/files/WG_Food_Security_Report_12_10(1).pdf.

World Resources Institute (WRI). (2010). Degraded land, sustainable palm oil, and Indonesia’s Future. Diakses 14 September 2010 dari http://www.wri. org/stories/2010/07/degraded-landsustainable-palm-oil- and-indonesias-future.

WWF-Malaysia. (2003). Forest conversion initiative. Foreign Exchange or a Sustainable Future for Malaysian Forests. WWF-Malaysia. Diakses 20 September 2012 dari http://www.wwf.org. my/about_wwf /what_we_do/forests_main/restore/project_forest_conversion_initiative/.

Zen, Z., dkk. (2006). Oil palm in Indonesian socioeconomic improvement: a review of options. Industry Economic Journal, 6, 18–2

Copyright (c) 2018 Sakti Hutabarat
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.