PERGESERAN BAHASA DAN IDENTITAS SOSIAL DALAM MASYARAKAT MINANGKABAU KOTA: STUDI KASUS DI KOTA PADANG

Rina Marnita

Abstract

Minangkabau is a bilingual diglossic community where the Indonesian
and Minangkabau languages live side by side with its own communicative
function. However, during the last three decades, the Indonesian language has
been increasingly used not only in public places for formal purposes but also
at home among family members in daily communication. Working under the
framework of Hymes (1964) sociolinguistic ethnography and implementing
Fishmans (1970) domain theory, a study is conducted in Minangkabau speech community in Padang, the capital city of West Sumatra Province. The study aims to investigate language choice and language attitude of the Minangkabau as well as to examine the socio-cultural determinants motivating the choice and the attitude. It reveals that different age group perform different pattern of language choice; adoloscents speak more Indonesian than teenagers, adults and older speakers. This indicates the language shifting, that is from Minangkabau to Indonesia, to some degree has been in progress in the speech community. Peoples positive attitude toward Indonesian as the language of the educated people has motivated most young families in Padang to choose Indonesian as the frst language of their children. The prestige of nonformal Jakartan Indonesian languages has attracted the youth to use the variety of these languages in their social interaction.


Keywords: language choice, language attitude, language shift, social identity,
Minangkabau and Padang

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