OPOSISI DALAM KEHIDUPAN DEMOKRASI: ARTI PENTING KEBERADAAN OPOSISI SEBAGAI BAGIAN PENGUATAN DEMOKRASI DI INDONESIA

Firman Noor

Abstract

In real politics, the acknowledgement and implementation of democracy would be in vain if the government in daily basis is actually run without any effective controls or balancer from the opposition. Such a government is actually close to the oligarchy or authoritarian government. Indonesia as a country that believes in democracy up until today still has not been able to develop a strong opposition. In this regards, this article aims to discuss the relationship between democracy and opposition. Some specific issues would also be discussed namely, (1) the essence of opposition in democratic framework, (2) the opposition in Indonesian politics and why it is important for democracy strengthening, (3) some aspects that should be performed in order to solidify opposition in political life.


Keywords: Democracy, opposition, oligarchy, people sovereignty, control


ABSTRAK

Dalam realitas politik pengakuan dan pelaksanaan atas demokrasi di suatu negara tidak akan banyak berarti jika pemerintah yang ada berjalan tanpa pengimbang atau tanpa kontrol yang efektif dari oposisi. Pemerintah sedemikian sesungguhnya lebih dekat dengan sebentuk pemerintahan oligarkis atau otoriter ketimbang pemerintahan demokratis. Indonesia sebagai sebuah negara yang mengakui demokrasi hingga kini belum dapat dikatakan sebagai negara yang berhasil dalam menumbuhkan oposisi yang kuat. Sehubungan dengan itu artikel ini akan membahas beberapa persoalan terkait dengan hakekat oposisi dalam kehidupan demokrasi. Secara lebih spesifik artikel ini akan membahas (1) hakekat oposisi dalam kerangka demokrasi, (2) oposisi dalam realitas politik di Indonesia dan mengapa hal itu menjadi penting untuk penguatan demokrasi, (3) beberapa hal yang dapat dipertimbangkan untuk menumbuhkan oposisi dalam kehidupan politik bangsa.

Kata kunci: Demokrasi, oposisi, oligarki, kedaulatan rakyat, kontrol

Keywords

Demokrasi Lokal dan Pilkada Serentak

Full Text:

PDF

References

Amadigwe, V. (2004). The Relationship between separation of powers, rule of law and parliamentary sovereignty in British Constitution. Diakses pada 16 Maret 2016 dari http://www.worldoruunion.org/ArticlesRelationship.htm.

Ambardi, K. (2009). Mengungkap politik kartel. Studi tentang sistem kepartaian di Indonesia era reformasi. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer

Gramedia.

Barnard, F. (1972). Between opposition and political opposition, the search of competitive politics in Czechoslovakia. Canadian Journal of Political

Science, 5(4), 533–552.

Budiman, A. (2001). Negara dan masyarakat madani. Dalam St. Sularto (Ed.), Masyarakat warga dan pergulatan demokrasi. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Buehler, M. (2014). Elite competition and changing state-society relations: Shari’a policymaking in Indonesia”. Dalam Michele Ford & Thomas B. Pepinsky (Eds.), Beyond oligarchy. Wealth, power and contemporary Indonesian politics. Cornell: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.

Bunte, M., & Ufen, A. (2009). The new order and its legacy: Reflections on democratization in Indonesia. Dalam Bunte, Marco, & Ufen Andres (Eds.), Democratization on post-Suharto Indonesia. London: Routledge.

Dahl, R. (1966). Political opposition in western democracies. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press.

Dahl, R. (1971). Poliarchy: participation and opposition. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press.

Diamond, L., & Morlino, L. (2004), The quality of democracy: An overview. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 20–31.

Feith, H. (1968). The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia. Itacha: Cornell University Press.

Ford, M., & Pepinsky, T. B. (Eds.). (2014). Beyond oligarchy. Wealth, power and contemporary Indonesian politics. Cornell: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.

Fragile States Index. (2015). Diakses pada 15 Maret 2016 dari http:// fsi.fundforpeace.org/.

Gatra. (2014). “Ketua majelis syariah DPP PPP K.H Maimoen Zubair: Saya nda seneng oposisi”,. (3 September 2014). Hlm. 23.

Gutmann, A., & Thomson, D. (2004). Why Deliberative democracy?. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Held, D. (1960). Models of democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kamil, S. (2002). Islam dan demokrasi. Telaah konseptual dan historis. Jakarta: Gaya Media Pratama.

Kroef, J. van der. (Nov-Des 1977). The Indonesian opposition. Asian Affairs, 5(2), 109–125.

Liddle, R. (2014). Improving the quality of democracy in Indonesia: Toward a theory of action. Dalam Michele Ford & Thomas B. Pepinsky (Eds.), Beyond oligarchy. Wealth, power and contemporary Indonesian politics. Cornell: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.

Lucius, R. E. (2003). A house divided: The decline and fall of Masyumi (1950–1956) (Master thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey).

Mayo, H. (1991). An introduction to democratic theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Mietzner, M. (2013). Money, power, and ideology. Political parties in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Singapore: ASAA Southeast Asia Publication Series.

Mietzner, M. (2014). Oligarchs, politicians, and activists: Contesting party politics in Post-Soeharto Indonesia. Dalam Michele Ford & Thomas B.

Pepinsky (Eds.), Beyond oligarchy. Wealth, power and contemporary Indonesian politics. Cornell: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.

O’Donell, G. (1996). Delegative democracy. Dalam Larry Diamond & M. F. Plattner, The global resurgence of democracy. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pratignyo, I. (1983). Ungkapan sejarah lahirnya Golongan Karya: Perjoangan menegakkan kembali negara proklamasi 17-8-1945. Jakarta: Yayasan Bhakti TP.

Przeworski, A. (1991). Democracy and the market: Political and economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Roberts, K. M. (1999). Deepening democracy: The modern left and social movements in Chile and Peru. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Robison, R., & Hadiz, V. R. (2004). Reorganising power in Indonesia: The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets. London: Routledge Curzon.

Rodan, G., & Jayasurya, K. (2009). Capitalist development, regime transitions, and new forms of authoritarianism in Asia. The Pacific Review,

(1), 23–47.

Rooney, K. (2001). Encarta concise english dictionary. Sydney: Pan Macmillan.

Sabri, M. (2012). Presiden tersandera, melihat dampak kombinasi sistem presidensial-multipartai terhadap relasi presiden-DPR di masa pemerintahan SBY-Boediono. Jakarta: RMBooks.

Saidi, R. (1993). Golkar pascapemilu 1992. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Schumpeter, J. (1975). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper and Row.

Shapiro, I. (1996). The fallacies concerning minorities, majorities, and democracy politics. Dalam Ian Shapiro, Democracy’s place. Ithaca, NY, and

London: Cornell University Press.

Subekti, V. S. (2014). Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia. Kontestasi politik hingga konflik kekuasaan elite. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Supriyanto, D., & Wulandari, L. (2012). Bantuan keuangan partai politik. Jakarta: Yayasan Perludem.

Tanter, R. & Young, K. (1993). Politik kelas menengah. Jakarta: LP3ES.

The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. Diakses pada 15 Maret 2016 dari www.prosperity.com/#!/.

Tornquist, O. (2006). Assessing democracy from below: A framework and Indonesian pilot project. Democratization, 13(2), 227–255.

Uhlin, A. (1998). Oposisi berserak, arus deras demokratisasi gelombang ketiga di Indonesia. Bandung: Mizan.

Winters, J. A. (2014). Oligarchy and democracy in Indonesia. Dalam Michele Ford & Thomas B. Pepinsky (Eds.), Beyond oligarchy. Wealth, power, and contemporary Indonesian politics. Cornell: Cornell Southeast Asia Program

Publications.

Winters, J. A. (2004). Oligarchy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Young, I. M. (2002). Ian Shapiro’s democratic justice. Good Society, 11(2), 76–77.

Copyright (c) 2016 Masyarakat Indonesia

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.