Heather Sutherland


The valuable trade statistics provided by the Netherlands Indies government are a boon
to researchers, but should not be accepted at face value. The extent to which shippers
avoided registration is indicated by a comparison of Makassars trade figures before
and after it was made a free-port in 1847, while early twentieth-century data from
Makassar itself show a significantly higher level of maritime traffic than Batavias
do. This suggests that central statistical series can seriously misrepresent local trade.
Keywords: Makassars trade, Statistics, VOC

Full Text:




Asba, A. Rasyid (editor). 2007. Kopra Makassar. Perebutan Pusat dan Daerah:

Kajian Sejarah Ekonomi Politik Regional di Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor


Berg, N.P. van den. 1907. Munt-, crediet- en bankwezen, handel en scheepvaart

in Nederlandsch-Indi. Historisch-statistische bijdragen. The Hague: Nijhoff.

Booth, Anne. 1998. The Indonesian Economy in the Nineteenth and

Twentieth Centuries. A History of Missed Opportunities. London: Macmillan.

Cool, Wouter. 1921. The Ports of the Dutch East Indies. Brussels: International

Association of Navigation Congresses.

Dick, Howard, Houben, Vincent J.H., Lindblad, J. Thomas and Thee Kian Wie. 2002.

The Emergence of a National Economy. An Economic History of Indonesia,

-2000. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Graaff, E.A. van de. 1955. De Statistiek in Indonesi. The Hague/Bandung: Van Hoeve.

Jacobs, Els M. 2006. Merchant in Asia. The Trade of the Dutch East India

Company during the Eighteenth Century. Leiden: CNWS Publications.

Knaap, Gerrit and Sutherland, Heather. 2004. Monsoon Traders: Ships, Skippers and

Commodities in Eighteenth-Century Makassar. Leiden: KITLV Press. Malewa,

Nadjarmoedin Daeng. 1938. De Indonesische prauwvaart in het interinsulair

verkeer. [No place].

Poelinggomang, Edward L. 2002. Makassar Abad XIX: Studi tentang Kebijakan

Perdagangan Maritim. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Singgih Tri Sulistiyono. 2003. The Java Sea Network: Patterns in the Development

of Interregional Shipping and Trade in the Process of National Economic

Integration in Indonesia, 1870s-1970s. PhD dissertation, Leiden University.

Warren, James Francis. 1981. The Sulu Zone: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery

and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State.

Singapore: Singapore University Press.


Dick, Howard. 1990. Inter-Island Trade, Economic Integration and the Emergence of

the National Economy. In W.J. OMalley, Booth, Anne and Weidemann, Anne

(editors), Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era. New Haven:

Yale Center for International and Area Studies.

Makassar. 1879. Makassar als vrijhaven. Indische Gids. Vol. 1, No. 1.

Poelinggomang, Edward L. 1993. The Dutch Trade Policy and Its Impact on

Makassars Trade. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs [RIMA], Vol.

, No. 1-2.

Sutherland, Heather and Bree, David S. 1987. Quantitative and Qualitative

Approaches to the Study of Indonesian Trade: The Case of Makassar. In T.

Ibrahim Alfian et al. (editor), Dari Babad dan Hikayat sampai Sejarah Kritis:

Kumpulan Karangan Dipersembahkan kepada Prof.Dr. Sartono Kartodirdjo.

Yogyakarta: GadjahMada University Press.

Wong Lin Ken. 1960. The Trade of Singapore 1819-69, Journal of the Malay(si)an

Branch of the Royal Statistical Society [JMBRAS]. Vol. 33, No. 4.

Statistical reports and reference works

Clemens, A.H.P., Lindblad, J. Thomas and Touwen, L. Jeroen. 1992. Changing

Economy in Indonesia. Vol. XIIB. Regional Patterns in Foreign Trade 1911-

Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.

Encyclopaedie. 1918. Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indi. 2nd edition. [4 vols.].

Leiden: Brill.

Indisch Verslag. 1931-1940. Indisch Verslag. Vol. 2. Statistisch jaaroverzicht van

Nederlandsch-Indi. Weltevreden: Landsdrukkerij.

Jaarverslag Haven. 1925. Jaarverslag der Haven van Makassar 1924. Makassar:


Jaarverslag Kamer van Koophandel. 1912. Jaarverslag van de Kamer van

Koophandel en Nijverheid te Makassar over het jaar 1912. Makassar: Kamer

van Koophandel en Nijverheid.

Knaap, Gerrit J. 1989. Changing Economy in Indonesia. Vol. 9. Transport 1819-1940.

Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.

Koloniaal Verslag. 1867-1923. Koloniaal Verslag. The Hague: Algemeene


Overzigt. 1846-1869. Overzigt van den Handel en de Scheepvaart in de Nederlandsche

Bezittingen in Oost-Indi, buiten Java en Madura. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.

Statistiek van den handel. 1870-1906. Statistiek van den handel en de

in- en uitvoerrechten in Nederlandsch-Indi. Weltevreden: Visser.

Statistiek van den handel, de scheepvaart. 1871-1875. Statistiek van den handel, de

scheepvaart en de in- en uitvoerregten in de bezittingen buiten Java en Madura.

Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.

Statistisch jaaroverzicht. 1923-1930. Statistisch jaaroverzicht van Nederlandsch-Indi.

Weltevreden: Landsdrukkerij.

Touwen, Jeroen. 2001. Shipping and Trade in the Java Sea Region, 1870-1940. Leiden:


Verslag van den handel. 1825-1871. Verslag van den handel, de scheepvaart en de

inkomende en uitgaande regten op Java en Madura. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.

Verslag van het beheer. 1849-1866. Verslag van het beheer en den staat der

Nederlandsche bezittingen en kolonin in Oost- en West-Indi. Utrecht:


Archival sources

Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia (ANRI), Jakarta: Makassar. Vol. 7/7, 9/1, 9/4.

Nationaal Archief, The Hague: VOC. Vol. 3243.


Touwen, Jeroen. 2002. Accelerations in Java Sea Trade. Foreign and Domestic Trade

and Shipping in Late Colonial Indonesia, 1870-1940. In Indonesia Economic

Growth and Institutional Change Programme. Amsterdam: International

Institute of Social History.

Copyright (c) 2017 Masyarakat Indonesia


  • There are currently no refbacks.